Appeal to Pity (argumentum ad misericordium) - Instead of giving carefully documented reasons, evidence and facts, a person appeals to our sense of pity, compassion, brotherly love.
Example from News: We need to provide health care for all Americans, end discrimination against pre-existing conditions and stop insurance companies from dropping people who are sick. "No one should go broke because they get sick". 
Problem: Limited (or no) facts or evidence that this is happening.
Appeal to Guilt - You have it good, so shouldn't you help those less fortunate
Example from News: "We need to spread the wealth"[1 at 4:42]
Appeal to Fear - "If you don't do X then Y will happen (and Y is bad)"
Example: Pass TARP or else banks will fail and economy will crumble, pass the Economic Stimulus or else unemployment will rise, pass Cap & Trade or else we'll destroy the earth, "...health care reform cannot wait, it must not wait, and it will not wait another year." 
Appeal to Hope - "If you do X, Y may happen. Therefore, if you want Y to happen, do X (and Y is good)". Example: 
Appeal to Sincerity - The person presenting the argument seems very sincere, therefore we should trust them. Example: 
Appeal to Status/Bandwagon -
- You can gain status by making this choice
- Anyone of importance is doing the same thing
- "Everyone is doing it"
Example: every poll, pollster, and [1 at 2:03]
Repetition - The theory is that if you say something often enough, people will eventually believe it.
Example: Google Search -
- "global warming facts" -> 35,500,000 hits
- "health care reform needed now" -> 21,700,000 hits
- "obama hope and change" -> 108,000,000 hits
- "economics stimulus package new jobs" -> 10,200,000
- Global Warming is caused by man made carbon dioxide emissions. Natural cycles, solar variations, ocean CO2 absorption and emission, etc. are all ignored.
- Our current health care crisis is caused by greedy insurance companies (specifically executives). Poor health habits, over regulation, and many other issues are basically ignored.
Name Calling - Use names with strong negative emotional associations for people you don't like or who oppose your position. These terms should be first defined and then evidence should be provided.
- Tea Party protesters are "Un-American, Astro-turf, teabaggers" (Until April 15, 2009, I never new that teabaggers was a sexually obscene term).
- If you don't agree with Obama, you are a racist.
It's late so I'll have to comment on the Chapter 6, Irrelevance another time.